Central Asia-China Gas Pipeline
The Central Asia-China Gas Pipeline is the main infrastructure complex for transporting gas from Turkmenistan to the Chinese region of Xinjiang (via Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan). It is managed by the state-owned China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), together with partner companies of the Central Asian countries. It has a capacity of approximately 55 billion cubic meters of gas per year, equal to approximately 20 percent of China’s energy need. The complex envisages the parallel passage of three gas pipelines covering a distance of 1,830 kilometers between the Turkmen cities of Gedaim (on the border with Uzbekistan) and Hogor, in the Chinese province of Xinjiang. The total length of the three pipelines is approximately 3,600 kilometers. The first of the two gas pipelines, line A, was started in July 2008, became operational in December 2009. Line B followed in October of 2010. The two-pipeline system had a capacity of 30 billion cubic meters per year during 2011. Work on a third pipeline, known as line C, started in September of 2012 and was completed at the end of 2013. The pipeline officially entered into operation in 2014, increasing the gas pipeline’s capacity by 25 billion cubic meters per year. In September of 2013, China signed intergovernmental agreements with Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kirghizstan for the construction of line D of the gas pipeline, whose construction started on September 13, 2014 and is still in progress. The new gas pipeline will connect the supergiant gas basin of Galkynysh in Turkmenistan to China and will increase the total capacity of the Central Asia-China gas pipeline complex by an additional 30 billion cubic meters per year, reaching a total of 85 billion cubic meters, becoming the largest gas transport system in Central Asia.
The Turkish Stream gas pipeline, which is expected to transport Russian gas to Europe via the Black Sea, was first announced in December 2014, during Russian President Vladimir Putin’s historic visit to Ankara. The project was founded after the Shah Deniz consortium, which controls the Azerbaijani field off the Caspian coast, had chosen the Southern Gas Corridor to transport natural gas to Europe. According to Moscow, Turkish Stream would have then had to address the failed construction of South Stream, the large gas pipeline designed to transport gas from southern Russia to Italy via the waters of the Black Sea, Bulgaria, Serbia and Albania. However, the project was frozen in November 2015, after the Turkish air force shot down a Russian fighter jet on the border with Syria. This episode abruptly worsened relations between Moscow and Ankara, enough to fear that conflict might develop between the two countries. After the failed coup in Turkey in July 2016, relations between the two countries significantly improved and led to a reconciliation, one sanctioned by a meeting in St. Petersburg between Putin and Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, and they have therefore relaunched the project. Turkish Stream is expected to be based on a BOT (Build, operate, transfer) funding model and should involve two lines: the first should supply the domestic Turkish market with approximately 15.75 billion cubic meters of gas per year, and the second should transport the same amount of Russian gas to Europe.